Abstract

Observations of azimuthal seismic anisotropy provide useful information, notably on stress orientation and the presence of preexisting natural fracture systems, during hydraulic fracturing operations. Seismic anisotropy can be observed through the measurement of S-wave splitting (SWS) on waveforms generated by microseismic events and recorded on downhole geophone arrays. We have developed measurements of azimuthal anisotropy from a Lower Paleozoic shale play in northern Poland. The observed orthorhombic anisotropic symmetry system is dominated by a vertically transverse isotropy (VTI) fabric, produced by the alignment of anisotropic platy clay minerals and by thin horizontal layering and overprinted by a weak azimuthal anisotropy. Despite the dominating VTI fabric, we successfully identified a weaker horizontal-transverse isotropy fabric striking east–southeast. We do this by constraining the rock-physics model inversion with VTI background parameters incorporated from other geophysical methods: microseismic velocity model inversion, 3D reflection seismic, and borehole cross-dipole sonic logs. The obtained orientation is consistent with a preexisting natural fracture set that has been observed using X-ray micro-imaging (XRMI) image logs from a nearby vertical well. The present-day regional maximum horizontal stress direction differs from the observed fracture strike by approximately 45°. This implies that the SWS measurements recorded during hydraulic stimulation of a shale-gas reservoir are imaging the preexisting natural fracture set, which influences the treatment efficiency, instead of the present-day stress.

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