Abstract

A precise velocity model is necessary to obtain reliable locations of microseismic events, which provide information about the effectiveness of the hydraulic stimulation. Seismic anisotropy plays an important role in microseismic event location by imposing the dependency between wave velocities and its propagation direction. Building an anisotropic velocity model that accounts for that effect allows for more accurate location of microseismic events. We have used downhole microseismic records from a pilot hydraulic fracturing experiment in Lower-Paleozoic shale gas play in the Baltic Basin, Northern Poland, to obtain accurate microseismic events locations. We have developed a workflow for a vertical transverse isotropy velocity model construction when facing a challenging absence of horizontally polarized S-waves in perforation shot data, which carry information about Thomsen’s γ parameter and provide valuable constraints for locating microseismic events. We extract effective ϵ, δ and VP0, VS0 for each layer from the P- and SV-wave arrivals of perforation shots, whereas the unresolved γ is retrieved afterward from the SH-SV-wave delay time of selected microseismic events. An inverted velocity model provides more reliable location of microseismic events, which then becomes an essential input for evaluating the hydraulic stimulation job effectiveness in the geomechanical context. We evaluate the influence of the preexisting fracture sets and obliquity between the borehole trajectory and principal horizontal stress direction on the hydraulic treatment performance. The fracturing fluid migrates to previously fractured zones, while the growth of the microseismic volume in consecutive stages is caused by increased penetration of the above-lying lithologic formations.

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