Volcanic reservoirs have been overlooked for hydrocarbon exploration for a long time. Carboniferous volcanic rocks of the Zhongguai paleouplift contain proven reserves of . We have investigated the volcanic reservoirs integrating cores, well, and seismic data, and the proposed volcanic reservoir distribution is controlled by the weathering function, fractures, and lithology. The weathering process makes the originally tight igneous rocks become good-quality reservoirs, and fractures play an important role in connecting different types of pores and act as reservoir space. Isolated and ineffective pores become effective ones due to connection among fractures. Only volcanic breccia can be good-quality reservoirs without any weathering function. The nonlinear chaos inversion controlled by weathered layers shows that the good-quality reservoirs are distributed in the top of the weathering crust and the structural high. Furthermore, fluid-detection attributes and background information prove that oil and gas are distributed along the paleostructural high. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and determine the controlled rules for reservoir distribution, (2) characterize the distribution of reservoirs and hydrocarbon, and (3) propose an effective workflow for hydrocarbon exploration in volcanic rocks combining geologic and geophysical methods.