Abstract

Coarse clastic rocks of the upper Sha 4 Member in the northern Bonan Sag of the Bohai Bay Basin in eastern China are important hydrocarbon reservoirs. The deposits are tight reservoirs owing to the low porosity (less than 10%) and low permeability (less than 1 mD). Because of the strong heterogeneity, although the reserve in the northern Bonan Sag is remarkable, only 4.9% of the reserves are recovered. We have studied these tight reservoirs by linking diagenesis to sedimentary facies to help predict the distribution of high-quality tight reservoirs. Petrographic analysis is undertaken based on cores, thin sections, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, helpful to understand the impacts on tight reservoirs of sedimentary factors and diagenesis factors. Sedimentary microfacies, lithologic characteristics, reservoir property, diagenesis, and diagenetic minerals are studied. Coarse clastic rocks are deposited mainly in nearshore subaqueous fans and fan deltas. The multistage sandstones are the valid reservoirs of coarse clastic rocks and dominated by feldspathic litharenite, lithic arkose, and arkose. The reservoir property is poor principally owing to the strong compaction and cementation. Pores are composed of secondary pores and primary pores. The secondary pore, generated in the dissolution of detrital minerals and/or cements, is the major type of pores and important to porosity improvement. By linking diagenesis to sedimentary facies, it can be concluded that high-quality tight reservoirs of coarse clastic rocks of the upper Sha 4 Member in the northern Bonan Sag of Bohai Bay Basin in eastern China are associated with medium to coarse-grain sandstones, found in the middle part of underwater distributary channel deposits in fan deltas and in the middle part of underwater channel deposits in nearshore subaqueous fans, with abundant secondary porosity but low cement contents, vertically at depths ranging from 3500 to 4100 m.

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