Since the pioneering work of Nemeth et al. (1999) two decades ago, least-squares migration (LSM) has come a long way, emerging as the next key advancement in seismic imaging. Some of the leading oil and gas service companies now offer LSM as amplitude-compliant and illumination/fold-compensated imaging deliverables. LSM and full-waveform inversion (FWI) are two closely related, rapidly evolving, and highly promising technologies in the exploration industry. Of these two technologies, the objective of FWI is to reconstruct both long- and short-wavelength components of the velocity model by matching synthetic seismograms to measured seismograms. In contrast, LSM assumes that an accurate...

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