Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a nonlinear data fitting procedure that minimizes the misfit between observed and computed seismic data and iteratively updates the subsurface model. The promise of FWI is that we can start building this subsurface model with raw records with minimal processing applied. This is especially appealing because reducing the turn-around cycle of data analysis heavily impacts the exploration process. In recent years, FWI helped the industry to effectively solve complex imaging challenges, for example, seeing through gas clouds and resolving shallow velocity heterogeneities (channels), among others, even though the majority of the applications used models parameterized simply...

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