Geothermal energy is heat generated and stored in the earth, a combination of residual heat from earth’s formation and heat generated by radioactive decay. Ninety-nine percent of earth’s mass has a temperature in excess of 1000°C, a source of low-pollution energy that potentially is available 24 h a day, 365 days a year. However, total world production of geothermal power is less than 12,000 MW annually, mostly generated at relatively few locations where the geothermal gradient is unusually high. Expanding the exploitation of geothermal energy will require greater knowledge of geothermal systems, requiring technological advances in seismic interpretation and thermal...

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