As the largest marginal sea in the western Pacific region, the South China Sea (SCS) occupies a unique location at the conjunction of modern Eurasia, Indo-Australian, and Philippine Sea plates, and between the largest continent, Eurasia, and the largest ocean, the Pacific. The marginal sea is characterized by the conjugate passive margins on its northern and southern sides. It is bounded by a strike-slip fault margin off Vietnam to the west, and has been subducting under the Luzon arc to the east. More than 40 Cenozoic sedimentary basins have been recognized in the SCS, in which the Cenozoic sediment fills...

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