Near-surface geoscientists are engaged in investigations of the subsurface at depths shallower than those of typical oil and gas explorations. Near-surface geoscientists use noninvasive or minimally invasive methods (e.g., seismic, electrical, GPR, electromagnetic, gravity, magnetic, biological, and chemical) as well as invasive techniques (e.g., drilling, trenching, and excavating). Understanding near-surface structure and properties aids exploration and development because seismic imaging of deep structures requires accurate near-surface wave-propagation models.

The papers in this special section cover different fields and applications, from shallow seismic P-wave and S-wave to magnetic and UXO detection. All of these papers are limited to shallow depth from...

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