ABSTRACT

Rock typing is critical in deepwater reservoir characterization to construct stratigraphic models populated with static and dynamic petrophysical properties. Rock typing based on multiple well logs is subject to large uncertainty in thinly bedded reservoirs because true physical properties cannot be resolved by low-resolution logging tools due to shoulder-bed effects. We have introduced a new Bayesian approach that inherently adopts the scientific method of iterative hypothesis testing to perform rock typing by simultaneously honoring different logging-tool physics in a multilayered earth model. In addition to estimating the vertical distribution of rock types with maximum likelihood, the Bayesian method quantifies the uncertainty of rock types and the associated petrophysical properties layer by layer. Bayesian rock classification is performed with a fast sampling technique based on the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method, thereby enabling an efficient search of rock types to obtain the final results. We have used a fast linear iterative refinement method to simulate nuclear logs and a 2D forward modeling code to simulate array-induction resistivity logs. A rock-type distribution hypothesis is considered acceptable only when all the observed well logs are reproduced with forward modeling. In a field case of offshore deltaic gas reservoir, the Bayesian method differentiates rock types that exhibit subtle petrophysical variations due to grain size change. The new method provides more than 77% agreement between log- and core-derived rock types, whereas conventional deterministic methods achieve only 60% agreement due to the presence of thin beds and laminations. Even though large uncertainty is observed in thinly bedded and laminated zones, the Bayesian rock-typing method still yields rock types and petrophysical properties that agree well with core-plug measurements acquired in these layers. As a result, the overall correlation between log-derived permeability and core-measured permeability is improved by approximately 16% when compared with conventional deterministic methods.

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