Subsurface contamination is a significant problem worldwide that directly affects human health, ecosystems, and property. It also can impact valuable resources (e.g., groundwater, surface water, soils). Contaminated sites exist in a variety of sizes and locations, from a leaking underground storage tank to mega sites that stretch across several industrial facilities. Although contamination is primarily the result of anthropogenic activities such as manufacturing, mining, and improper waste disposal, some natural processes can also contribute. This can result in a wide variety of contaminants across a range of concentrations and different media. Subsurface contamination characterization can be challenging because it can...

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