Outcrops have long been studied as analogs for rocks in the subsurface that are rich in natural resources, such as hydrocarbons, minerals, and groundwater. Outcrops provide highly detailed and spatially continuous information on, for example, petrology, facies, sedimentary structures, texture, grain types, morphometric properties, fractures and their orientations, joint patterns, compaction, diagenetic changes, and petrophysical and physicochemical properties. However, in most cases, this information is 2D or pseudo 3D at best. This may restrict the reconstruction in a true 3D sense and specific down-dip or along-strike trends may be difficult to quantify.

Typically, geophysical methods are used to retrieve analog...

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