Abstract

We have analyzed vertical seismic profile (VSP) data acquired across a Marcellus Shale prospect and found that SV-P reflections could be extracted from far-offset VSP data generated by a vertical-vibrator source using time-variant receiver rotations. Optimal receiver rotation angles were determined by a dynamic steering of geophones to the time-varying approach directions of upgoing SV-P reflections. These SV-P reflections were then imaged using a VSP common-depth-point transformation based on ray tracing. Comparisons of our SV-P image with P-P and P-SV images derived from the same offset VSP data found that for deep targets, SV-P data created an image that extended farther from the receiver well than P-P and P-SV images and that spanned a wider offset range than P-P and P-SV images do. A comparison of our VSP SV-P image with a surface-based P-SV profile that traversed the VSP well demonstrated that SV-P data were equivalent to P-SV data for characterizing geology and that a VSP-derived SV-P image could be used to calibrate surface-recorded SV-P data that were generated by P-wave sources.

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