Uncertainty plays an important role in managing risk at all stages of the hydrocarbon exploration and production business. Much of this uncertainty is tied to the imperfect description of the subsurface in terms of structure and formation properties (the earth model). Therefore, our ability to better understand and quantify the uncertainties in this model will help better manage the risk and reduce cost in our industry.

Seismic data play a central role in creating the earth model. Starting from the seismic image derived using an isotropic or anisotropic seismic velocity model, to interpretation of geologic structures on that image, to...

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