Time-lapse geophysical technologies, including 4D seismic methods, are key enablers for improved hydrocarbon recovery and more cost-effective field operations. By analyzing differences in multiple geophysical surveys and by integrating those analyses with conventional reservoir monitoring data, time-lapse geophysical data provide valuable insights on dynamic reservoir properties such as fluid saturation, pressure and temperature and on changes in the overburden that can impact operations integrity.

Interpretation of time-lapse geophysical data is multidisciplinary, multiphysics, and multiscale. As with 3D seismic methods, there is no single way to interpret geophysical monitoring data. Qualitative interpretations typically evaluate the data in terms of sweep to...

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