Monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) activities are critical to assess storage site performance and meet the regulatory requirements of the new Class VI Underground Injection Control Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) geologic sequestration. MVA programs are designed and implemented to track and account for the mass of injected CO2, to protect underground sources of drinking water, and to protect the atmosphere from storage-related impacts. Although globally there have been many small-scale pilot and demonstration projects, to date there are few large-scale carbon capture, use, and storage (CCUS) projects, and there are limited...

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