Tunnel locations are accurately interpreted from diffraction sections of focused mode converted P- to S-wave diffractions from a perpendicular tunnel and P-wave diffractions from a nonperpendicular (oblique) tunnel. Near-surface tunnels are ideal candidates for diffraction imaging due to their small size relative to the seismic wavelength and large acoustic impedance contrast at the tunnel interface. Diffraction imaging algorithms generally assume that the velocities of the primary wave and the diffracted wave are approximately equal, and that the diffraction apex is recorded directly above the scatterpoint. Scattering phenomena from shallow tunnels with kinematic properties that violate these assumptions were observed in one field data set and one synthetic data set. We developed the traveltime equations for mode-converted and oblique diffractions and demonstrated a diffraction imaging algorithm designed for the roll-along style of acquisition. Potential processing and interpretation pitfalls specific to these diffraction types were identified. Based on our observations, recommendations were made to recognize and image mode-converted and oblique diffractions and accurately interpret tunnel depth, horizontal location, and azimuth with respect to the seismic line.

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