The term karst derives from the name of an area of Slovenia and generally refers to the result of weathering or dissolution of limestone, dolomite, anhydrite, or other soluble rocks. Karst and ancient, buried karst (paleokarst) affects hydrocarbon exploration and production, hydrogeology, and near-surface environmental concerns. Paleokarst is one of the most complex and least predictable styles of carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Wells that intersect karst-modified fractures frequently have high initial production rates followed by rapid decline or early water production. Karst collapse features can locally increase overlying depositional accommodation space, and bounding faults of collapse features may propagate into shallower...

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