Seismic reservoir characterization plays an important role in carbon capture and storage analysis. The Havnsø anticlinal structure in Denmark is a prospective CO2 storage site due to its proximity to two large emission sources—a coal-fired power station and a nearby refinery. Although legacy 2D seismic lines over the area outline the anticlinal structure, their quality is insufficient for quantitative interpretation. Earlier studies have shown that the natural gas stored in the Stenlille aquifer exhibits a seismic response similar to the modeled CO2 fluid in the Havnsø structure. Thus, seismic reservoir characterization carried out on the Stenlille aquifer gas storage in terms of identifying spatial distribution of gas and outlining faults would provide insight regarding value addition that seismic data can bring into the proposed CO2 storage at Havnsø. Using the available poststack seismic data, we apply an integrated reservoir characterization analysis. After performing the adequate data conditioning, the impedance of the target Stenlille Formation is estimated through generation of an accurate low-frequency model. Thereafter, multiattribute analysis was used to generate volumetric estimates of porosity, gamma ray, and water saturation within the target formation so that the spatial distribution of gas can be mapped. The resulting porosity and gamma-ray volumes indicate encouraging results and were used for Bayesian classification to predict the probability of the more important lithofacies, namely, sand, shale, moderate-porosity sand, and moderate-porosity shaly sand, which enabled the mapping of high-porosity/facies zones in the two aquifer storage levels. Independently, we make use of unsupervised machine learning applications for seismic facies prediction and compare them at the two storage levels, which will be presented in the part 2 of this paper.

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