A hundred years after the discovery of the Merensky Reef in 1924, it is appropriate to present the new mineral andrieslombaardite in honour of Andries Frederik Lombaard who was instrumental in its discovery. Andrieslombaardite, RhSbS, was ﬁrst described as an unknown mineral from placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-Uralian type complex, British Colombia, Canada (Raicevic and Cabri, 1976) but has since been reported from several other deposits including the platiniferous Driekop, Mooihoek, and Onverwacht pipes in the eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa.
The mineral and the name were approved by the Commission on New Minerals Nomenclature and Classiﬁcation (CNMNC) of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA no. 2022-076) based on data in the co-type samples from Onverwacht and a co-type sample from the Yubdo stream, Birbir River, Ethiopia. Andrieslombaardite in the Onverwacht sample is a single 8 x 20 μm grain attached to laurite in a matrix of altered silicate and Fe-oxyhydroxide minerals. In the Yubdo samples, there are many grains of pale brownish gray andrieslombaardite up to 25 x 55 μm in size, included in Pt-Fe alloys, some associated with erlichmanite, and others attached to bornite and chalcopyrite.
The reﬂectance values (R%) measured in air and in oil at the COM wavelengths are 48.3 and 33.0 (470 nm), 49.3 and 34.0 (546 nm), 51.0 and 35.9 (589 nm), and 51.8 and 36.7 (650 nm). The colour values x, y, Y, λd, and Pe in air are 0.317, 0.322, 50.3, 580, and 3.2, and in oil are 0.319, 0.324, 35.6, 579, and 4.5.
The composition of andrieslombaardite is ideally RhSbS, but it contains variable amounts of Fe, Pt, Pd, and Ir that may substitute for Rh. The mineral is cubic with unit-cell dimensions of a = 6.0278(4) Å, V = 219.01(6) Å3 and Z = 4. It was synthesised at 400 and 550°C using stoichiometric elemental amounts. It is a member of the cobaltite group.
The mineralisation of the intrusive dunite pipes was probably introduced at high temperatures, under magmatic conditions. The primary assemblages were to a certain degree overprinted and redistributed by low-temperature hydrothermal ﬂuids. The Pt-Fe alloys from Yubdo containing PGM inclusions such as andrieslombaardite in the Yubdo-Alaskan-type complex were formed at some post-magmatic stage owing to PGE remobilisation during hydrothermal or metamorphic episodes.