Geological, lithological, petrographical, geochemical, and geochronological data in the Palaeoproterozoic Richtersveld Subprovince/Magmatic Arc (RMA) of Precambrian basement rocks of the Vioolsdrif Domain in southern Namibia, strongly support linkages in the history of formation between the volcanic rock types of the Orange River Group (ORG) and the plutonic rocks of the Vioolsdrif Suite (VS). Previous age dating indicates volcanics of the ORG are more-or-less synchronous with granitic phases of the VS. Geochemical, mineralogical, and comprehensive field and petrological characteristics of the volcanic and granitic rocks suggest genetically linked, parallel igneous-effusive rock suites through processes of fractional crystallisation. Intermittent tapping of evolving residual magmas produced an extrusive carapace of volcanic rocks covering the granitic rocks in a classic magmatic differentiation context of parallel geochemical and lithological evolution. As the magma chamber fractionated plutonic phases of the VS at depth, it extruded residual liquids as volcanic flows and ejecta at surface to form the ORG. A first principal model, based on Ba, Rb and Sr trace element and SiO2, MgO, Al2O3, TiO2 major element behaviour, is supported by multivariate modelling of 28 major and trace elements in 129 rock analyses using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA indicates the first four components account for more than 80% of the total compositional variance in all rock types lending comprehensive support for a linked geochemical differentiation model for both the igneous and the volcanic suites. Strong evidence for the magmatic co-evolution of the plutonic and effusive series includes the Cu-mineralisation event, which manifests itself as a resolvable, orthogonal fifth principal component, geochemically overprinting the intermediate ‘porphyry monzogranite’ differentiation stages, but not related to the terminal leuco-granites. The full spectrum of geochemical relationships is consistent with current models of a direct genetic relationship between evolving high Sr/Y magmas and hydrothermal porphyry Cu deposits, in overall agreement with the full context of field, rock, mineralogical, geochemical, and economic geology interpretations presented here.

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