Improvements in excavation methods, dating, analytical techniques and statistical applications have all led to a substantial increase in recoverable environmental evidence from micromammals. Because these animals are so small the information they provide is on a smaller geographical scale than that afforded by most other lines of evidence. However, with increasing amounts of data and greater interpretational precision in all spheres, the chances are improving of being able to mesh information from different scales. Blombos, Pinnacle Point and Klasies River on the southern coast of South Africa have clearly demonstrated that micromammalian data can contribute to multidisciplinary interpretations of past conditions, in this case during MIS 5 and 6. Little attention has been paid to the generally small samples from Iron Age sites but the presence of the House rat Rattus rattus may provide important information about human movements and may also contribute to our understanding of the Anthropocene once this has been formally defined. Micromammals have not yet been used as chronostratigraphic indicators in southern Africa but it may be possible to develop biochronologies using them and to incorporate this material into African Land Mammal Ages.

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