Manganese oxyhydroxide mineralization is widespread in the Constantiaberg Massif. It is largely hosted by west-northwest – east-southeast trending brittle structures in the competent Ordovician arenites of the Peninsula Formation of the Cape Supergroup. Manganese is also found impregnating more porous Peninsula Formation arenites and Quaternary scree.
This study proposes that the more significant deposits at Hout Bay and Constantiaberg differ from most of the mineralization in that they are spatially associated with saprolithic dolerite dykes belonging to the 132 Ma False Bay dolerite dyke swarm. It is suggested that this deep weathering may be related to a Miocene palaeo-landsurface, yielding a maximum age for these more important Mn deposits. However, there is evidence for mineralization of different ages through the Quaternary Period.
Apart from Mn-mineralization hosted by rare breccias containing hydrothermal quartz, most of the mineralization is supergene, having been leached and transported in reduced acidic groundwater and precipitated at or near a redox front in a near-surface environment.