During the Grenvillian assembly of Rodinia, the Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Province (NNMP) was formed as a result of the convergence of the Laurentia and Kalahari cratons. A detailed model for this accretion along the south-eastern margin of the Kalahari Craton has been established, but the tectonic history of the NNMP along the western margin of the Kalahari Craton has remained highly controversial. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age dating of gneiss in the Kakamas Domain of the NNMP, as well as U-Pb SHRIMP age dating of detrital zircons and 40Ar/39Ar dating of metamorphic muscovite from sediments overlying the gneiss, confirms the presence of at least two separate events during the Namaqua-Natal Orogeny at ~1 166 Ma and 1 116 Ma. These events occurred after the Areachap Terrane was accreted onto the western margin of the Proto-Kalahari Craton during the Kheis Orogeny. 40Ar/39Ar ages derived from metamorphic muscovite formed in the metasediments of the Kheis terrane does not provide evidence for the timing of the Kheis Orogeny but suggests that it most likely only occurred after ~1 300 Ma and not at 1 800 Ma as commonly accepted. A U-Pb concordia age of ~1 166 Ma was derived from granitic gneiss in the Kakamas Domain of the Bushmanland Subprovince, possibly reflecting subduction and the initiation of continent-continent collision between the Proto-Kalahari Craton and the Bushmanland Subprovince. This granitic gneiss is nonconformably overlain by the metasediments of the Korannaland Group that contains metamorphic muscovite with 40Ar/39Ar ages of ~1 116 Ma. This age suggest that complete closure of the ocean between the Proto-Kalahari Craton and Bushmanland Subprovince probably occurred about 50 Ma after the intrusion of the ~1 166 Ma granitic gneisses.

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