Abstract

The Mesoarchaean Sinqeni Formation forms the lowermost unit of the predominantly sedimentary Mozaan Group (Pongola Supergroup) of southern Africa. The formation comprises a dominantly arenaceous succession, which can be subdivided into four members. A laterally discontinuous gold- and uranium-bearing conglomerate package (Denny Dalton Member) is commonly developed at the base of the formation. Overlying the basal conglomerates are two significant quartz arenite packages (Dipka, and Kwaaiman Members) which are separated by a ferruginous shale package (Vlakhoek Member) that locally hosts banded-iron formation. The formation is the most extensively exposed succession of the Mozaan Group, cropping out extensively in the Hartland region, as well as in multiple inliers from Amsterdam in the Mpumalanga to Nkandla in central KwaZulu-Natal, with further exposures in Eswatini. Subeconomic gold and uranium mineralisation occur sporadically within the conglomerates of the Denny Dalton Member, and have previously been mined from multiple occurrences in the White Mfolozi, Mhlatuze and Nkandla Inliers whilst many prospecting trenches are found in the conglomerates of the Hartland and Amsterdam areas. Gold has also briefly been exploited from ferruginous shales and iron formations of the Vlakhoek Member in the Altona area. Litho-correlative equivalents of the formation comprise the Mandeva Formation (White Mfolozi Inlier), Skurwerant Formation (Amsterdam region) and Mkaya Formation (Magudu region).

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