The Late Archaean to Early Proterozoic Malmani Subgroup comprises of dolomites and limestones forming part of the Chuniespoort Group within the Transvaal Supergroup, outcropping as an arc structure east of the Pretoria Group along the Limpopo and Mpumalanga escarpment. These rocks form a fractured karst aquifer in the area and have a high degree of heterogeneity and anisotropy. The aquifers are unconfined to semi-confined, with compartmentalisation by dolerite dykes being a possible effect (if the dykes are large and extensive enough) due to the dykes acting as aquitards or barriers to groundwater flow. The contact zones between the dolomite formations and dolerite dykes are usually fractured however, and along with any other faults and fractures result in preferential dolomite dissolution and the development of groundwater flow paths in the area. Borehole yields ranges between 2 to 5 l/s and potentially >10 l/s per borehole in the vicinity of large regional fractures or dolerite intrusions. Groundwater from the Malmani Subgroup generally meets the drinking water quality standards for major constituents and it is of Mg-Ca-HCO3 nature. Groundwater development within this particular hydrostratigraphy is linked to potential well field target zones that take cognisance of various surface water-groundwater interaction affecting surface water discharge rates as well as groundwater over-abstraction concerns. Preliminary results have indicated that given a groundwater potential of 44 hm3/a, the aquifer will be able to support abstractions of up to 29 hm3/a if systematically developed adaptively and could be used and managed conjunctively with surface water to alleviate the pressure on the already stressed Olifants Water Management Area.

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