Southern Africa, with its geological and natural diversity, is affected by highly variable distribution of fresh water and equally non-uniform rainfall patterns. The fresh water scarcity is exacerbated by the cost of energy for desalinisation; the cost for construction and maintenance of water infrastructure such as dams, wastewater treatment works and pipelines; urbanisation and population growth; and the very real effects of climate change affecting the distribution and intensity of precipitation.

The 2017 biannual conference of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa held in Stellenbosch took place in the midst of one of the worst...

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