The Paleoproterozoic Mako Belt in eastern Senegal is characterised by gold-bearing quartz veins. These are superimposed on the regional Birimian structural complex consisting of volcano-sedimentary and intrusive rocks in an Early Proterozoic greenstone belt. In the Mako Belt the multi-stage deformed quartz veins and hydrothermally altered protoliths are characterised by distinctive microstructures and CL properties. The high-grade Au-bearing quartz veins contain one or more generations of hydrothermal quartz. Brecciation of the veins is indicated by cemented fragments of zoned quartz. Gold in the mineralised zones occurs either as inclusions in pyrite or as native gold.
Mineralisation typically occurs in vein systems which are brecciated, laminated, and/or show crack-seal textures. Microstructures indicate syn- to late-tectonic mineralisation. Au-mineralised veins contain quartz, carbonate, muscovite, fuchsite, tourmaline, and chlorite. Fluid inclusion studies reveal early, highly saline aqueous inclusions followed by main-stage aqueous-carbonic inclusions of low salinity and finally aqueous low-salinity inclusions.
Petrographic observation and microthermometric data suggest that fluid inclusions in main stage quartz were trapped after phase separation from a heterogeneous H2O-CO2 fluid. Gold deposition occurs over a temperature range of 220 to 320°C and pressures of 1.4 to 2.75 kbar (~5 to 10 km depth). The late-stage quartz carbonate vein corresponds to pressures of 0.75 to 1.25 kbar and depths of 3.0 to 4.5 km. A fluid pressure drop due to fracture failure is likely to have triggered Au precipitation. The Mako Belt Au deposits are comparable to a large number of orogenic lode gold deposits in the West African Craton.