Rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic Transvaal Supergroup, situated between the Bushveld Igneous Complex and the Vredefort Impact Structure in the central parts of the Kaapvaal craton (South Africa), experienced a regional low-grade metamorphism synchronous with brittle–ductile deformation that formed small- to medium-scale folds, cleavages, monoclines and thrusts in the dolomites, slates, and phyllites. Single-grain 40Ar/39Ar step-heating laser probe dating of synkinematic white mica from the phyllites indicates ages of ~2.15 Ga and 2042.1 ± 2.9 Ma (plateaus and pseudo-plateaus, as well as cumulative probability statistics). These ages are clearly distinct from the emplacement age of the Bushveld Igneous Complex (~2.06 Ga) and from the Vredefort impact event (~2.02 Ga), both of which have previously been suggested as possible causes of the deformation. The new data suggest that at ~2.04 Ga, the rocks of the Transvaal Supergroup in the central craton were part of a more extensive fold-and-thrust belt, named here the Transvaalide fold-and-thrust belt. While it is difficult to explain the significance of the ~2.15 Ga ages, the ~2.04 Ga event may be related to orogenic activity along the margins of the Kaapvaal craton at this time.