The Carboniferous Timescale
CONTAINS OPEN ACCESS
The Carboniferous was the time of the assembly of Pangaea by the collision of the Gondwanan and Larussian supercontinents, and the principal interval of the late Paleozoic ice ages. These tectonic and climatic events caused dramatic sea-level fluctuations and climate changes and produced a Carboniferous world that was diverse topographically and climatologically, perhaps only rivalled in that diversity by the late Cenozoic world. Furthermore, the Carboniferous was a time of the accumulation of vast coal deposits of great economic and societal significance. The temporal ordering of geological and biotic events during Carboniferous time thus is critical to the interpretation of some unique and pivotal events in Earth history. This temporal ordering is based on the Carboniferous timescale, which has been developed and refined for nearly two centuries. This book reviews the history of the development of the Carboniferous chronostratigraphic scale and includes comprehensive analyses of Carboniferous radioisotopic ages, magnetostratigraphy, isotope-based correlations, cyclostratigraphy and timescale-relevant marine and non-marine biostratigraphy and biochronology.
Carboniferous conodont biostratigraphy
Published:April 13, 2022
James E. Barrick, Alexander S. Alekseev, Silvia Blanco-Ferrera, Natalia V. Goreva, Keyi Hu, Lance L. Lambert, Tamara I. Nemyrovska, Yuping Qi, Scott M. Ritter, Javier Sanz-López, 2022. "Carboniferous conodont biostratigraphy", The Carboniferous Timescale, Spencer G. Lucas, Joerg W. Schneider, Xiangdong Wang, Svetlana Nikolaeva
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Carboniferous conodont biostratigraphy comprises regional zonations that reflect the palaeogeographical distribution of taxa and distinct shallow-water and deep-water conodont biofacies. Some species have a global distribution and can effect high quality correlations. These taxa are incorporated into definitions of global Carboniferous chronostratigraphic units. A standard global Carboniferous zonation has not been developed. The lowermost Mississippian is zoned by Siphonodella species, excepet in shallow-water facies, where other polygnathids are used. Gnathodus species radiated during the Tournaisian and are used to define many Mississippian zones. A late Tournaisian maximum in diversity, characterized by short-lived genera, was followed by lower diversity faunas of Gnathodus species and carminate genera through the Visean and Serpukhovian. By the late Visean and Serpukhovian, Lochriea provides better biostratigraphic resolution. Shallow-water zonations based on Cavusgnathus and Mestognathus are difficult to correlate. An extinction event near the base of the Pennsylvanian was followed by the appearance of new gnathodid genera: Rhachistognathus, Declinognathodus, Neognathodus, Idiognathoides and Idiognathodus. By the middle of the Moscovian, few genera remained: Idiognathodus, Neognathodus and Swadelina. During the middle Kasimovian and Gzhelian, only Idiognathodus and Streptognathodus species were common. Near the end of the Gzhelian, a rediversification of Streptognathodus species extended into the Cisuralian.