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The Carboniferous Foraminifera are composed of representatives of three classes: Fusulinata, Miliolata and Nodosariata. Despite ample literature on Paleozoic Allogromiata and Textulariata, the real presence of these classes remains questionable during the Carboniferous and they are thus excluded herein. The main biostratigraphical markers belong to the superfamilies Archaediscoidea, Lasiodiscoidea and Bradyinoidea, even if many genera among the archaediscoids still have a controversial nomenclature, as well as do some lasiodiscids and bradyinoids. Secondary biostratigraphical markers belong to Lituotubelloidea (= ‘Tournayelloidea’ of the authors), Endothyroidea and Loeblichioidea (these latter giving rise to the primitive Fusulinida). The Miliolata appear at the Visean/Serpukhovian boundary interval. The typical Carboniferous miliolates are primitive nubeculariins and cornuspirinins. Tubiphytids might be miliolate and cyanobacterium consortia, derived from the nubeculariin Palaeonubecularia. The most primitive nodosariates (syzraniids) appeared in the Moscovian; and gave rise, in the latest Carboniferous, to Protonodosaria, Nodosinelloides and possibly Polarisella, Paravervilleina and the oldest Geinitzinoidea. Palaeobiological data are mainly provided by the genera Bradyina, Tetrataxis and Climacammina. Palaeobiogeographical distributions of Pojarkovella, Janischewskina, Eosigmoilina, Brenckleina, Spireitlina, Hemigordius and Syzrania testify to the successive foraminiferal migrations between the Palaeotethys, Ural and Panthalassan oceans. Two taxa are created: Eoparastaffellidae and Banffellinae.

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