Large Igneous Provinces and their Plumbing Systems
Identification of large-volume, short-duration mafic magmatic events of intraplate affinity in both continental and oceanic settings on the Earth and other planets provides invaluable clues for understanding several vital geological issues of current concern. Of particular importance is understanding the assembly and dispersal of supercontinents through Earth's history, dramatic climate change events including mass extinctions, and processes that have produced a wide range of large igneous province (LIP)-related resources, such as Ni–Cu–PGE, Au, U, base metals and petroleum. This volume comprises 21 contributions on the latest developments and new information on LIPs and their plumbing systems and presents methodical studies on different components of LIP plumbing systems. These articles are especially helpful in understanding continental break-up events, regional domal uplift and a variety of metallogenic systems, as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of LIPs, their origin and their likely links to mantle plumes/superplumes.
Petrogenesis and tectonic settings of Proterozoic mafic magmatism from the northern Indian Shield and the Himalaya: possible role for interaction of mantle plume with the subcontinental lithospheric mantle
Published:March 09, 2022
Talat Ahmad, Ibrahim Yousuf, Hiredya Chauhan, 2022. "Petrogenesis and tectonic settings of Proterozoic mafic magmatism from the northern Indian Shield and the Himalaya: possible role for interaction of mantle plume with the subcontinental lithospheric mantle", Large Igneous Provinces and their Plumbing Systems, Rajesh K. Srivastava, Richard E. Ernst, Kenneth L. Buchan, Michiel de Kock
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Northern Indian Shield and the western Himalaya have an impressive record of mafic magmatism. The Aravalli Craton preserved 2.3 Ga komatiitic (picritic) and 2.1–1.8 Ga tholeiities. Gwalior and Betul belts preserved 2.1 and 1.5–1.2 Ga tholeiites, respectively. Western Himalaya has preserved 2.1–1.8 Ga tholeiites in Garhwal and Himachal regions. Studied rocks depict enriched rare earth elements, large ion lithophile elements and depleted high field strength elements. Whereas komatiites/picrites represent higher degrees of partial melting (c. 35–40%) at higher temperatures (c. 1500°C), tholeiites represent lower degrees of partial melting (c. 10%) at lower temperatures (c. 1200°C). Our results indicate interaction of mantle plume with variably enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle sources, causing generation of these varied magmatic suites of rocks. Whereas the higher temperature komatiitic/picritic melts from the Aravalli region appear to have been generated closer to the plume head, the lower temperature tholeiitic melts from the shield region and western Himalaya were generated towards the plume margins. Different terrains of the study have undergone plume tectonics causing the development of the rift valleys. The majority of these developed into aulacogens, except for the Aravalli basin, which developed into deeper marine facies.