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The Kodachrome pipes were developed in a porous-sand host medium which is very unusual. The sub-vertical cylindrical sand pipes have previously been interpreted as injection structures with material derived from source beds near the base of the pipes. However, the large pipe formation (diameter >4 m) was probably caused by the disruption and partial liquefaction of the host sediments which have been broken into blocks by upward fluid streaming, with injection of only small amounts (<20% of pipe volume) of fluidized sand, derived from a source below. The strongest evidence for this mechanism is the sub-horizontal layering of large tabular blocks up to 4 m in length, which occurs in the largest pipes, and the preservation of traces of bedding extending from the host rock across the pipes. There is also a notable absence of rim synclines and upturned bedding around most of the pipes, which would be expected with local removal of highly viscous material containing large blocks derived from a source bed below the pipes.

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