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The Tumey Giant Injection Complex (TGIC) is a regionally developed sandstone intrusion complex emplaced into the deep-water Kreyenhagen Shale (Eocene) in the San Joaquin Basin, Central California. Detailed geological mapping, stratigraphic reconstruction and outcrop description, supported by structural analysis, allowed the architectural characterization of the TGIC. The complex is described as two main stratigraphically constrained intervals: (1) a lower interval (250 m thick) emplaced into clay-rich mudrock, consisting dominantly of sills with stepped and multilayered geometry; and (2) an upper interval (200 m thick) characterized by injection breccia and large wing-like intrusions (c. 600 m width × 100 m high) emplaced within predominantly biosiliceous mudrock strata. The intrusions in both intervals were derived from turbiditic channel fills intensely modified by sand fluidization. Sandstone intrusions and fractures affecting host strata are dominantly oriented sub-parallel to the basin axis striking between NW–SE and N–S, mainly dipping to NE and forming asymmetric saucer-shaped intrusions, suggesting structurally driven hydraulic fracturing and sand emplacement. The absence of a deep aquifer and potential sand sources underlying the complex suggests a lateral contribution of fluid flow. The TGIC occurs at a scale similar to injection complexes recognized in the subsurface and is a valuable reservoir analogue for hydrocarbon accumulations associated with sand injectites.

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