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Cape Town was founded in 1652 and many of its historical buildings are constructed of local natural stone. Malmesbury Group slate was exploited from 1666 and used to build Cape Town Castle, which is the oldest building in Cape Town. Two other local stones, Cape granite and Table Mountain sandstone were utilized for buildings from 1850. A medium-grained granite named Paarl Grey was exploited from an area adjacent to the town of Paarl, 50 km east of Cape Town, from 1890. This granite is the most extensively-used natural stone in Cape Town.

The resource fields of natural stone near Cape Town, namely Malmesbury Group slate, Cape granite and Table Mountain sandstone, lie within the Table Mountain National Park and Robben Island World Heritage Site and can no longer be exploited, but similar resource fields occur outside Cape Town. Paarl Grey granite is still extracted at one quarry and, despite part of the resource field lying within the Paarl Mountain Nature Reserve, there are still sufficient quantities of stone available.

From an international perspective, the heritage stones of Cape Town, South Africa, are best considered as having national significance.

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