Fold and Thrust Belts: Structural Style, Evolution and Exploration
CONTAINS OPEN ACCESS
The outer parts of collision mountain belts are commonly represented by fold and thrust belts. Major advances in understanding these tectonic settings have arisen from regional studies that integrate diverse geological information in quests to find and produce hydrocarbons. Drilling has provided tests of subsurface forecasts, challenging interpretation strategies and structural models. This volume contains 19 papers that illustrate a diversity of methods and approaches together with case studies from Europe, the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region. Collectively they show that appreciating diversity is key for developing better interpretations of complex geological structures in the subsurface – endeavours that span applications beyond the development of hydrocarbons.
Raman spectroscopy: an effective thermal marker in low temperature carbonaceous fold–thrust belts
Published:April 14, 2020
D. K. Muirhead, C. E. Bond, H. Watkins, R. W. H. Butler, A. Schito, Z. Crawford, A. Marpino, 2020. "Raman spectroscopy: an effective thermal marker in low temperature carbonaceous fold–thrust belts", Fold and Thrust Belts: Structural Style, Evolution and Exploration, J. A. Hammerstein, R. Di Cuia, M. A. Cottam, G. Zamora, R. W. H. Butler
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Raman spectroscopy allows thermal maturation of carbonaceous sediments to be determined. The technique has been employed on metamorphic samples exceeding temperatures of 270°C, but recently has been shown to be effective at lower temperatures. Thermal maturation techniques commonly depend on sample size, have varying efficacies at different temperatures and in different conditions. The underlying processes are not well understood, thus data interpretation can be ambiguous. Here we show the efficacy of Raman as a low-temperature thermal marker in a thrust belt. The Bornes region, in a French Subalpine chain, provides an opportunity to test the technique against published vitrinite reflectance data and thermal modelling for the first time. In doing so we show that Raman is an effective thermal marker to temperatures as low as 75°C, has a small error and is consistent with previous work. The Raman data allow us to postulate the relative thickness of the sedimentary succession across the chain, the timing of thermal maturation and the timing and thickness variations of the over-thrust Prealpine nappe. The work establishes Raman as a low-temperature thermal marker for correlation with other techniques to ensure effective and robust interpretation, that can readily be applied to fold–thrust belts in hydrocarbon provinces.