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The dissolution of limestone and chalk (soluble carbonates) through geological time can lead to the creation of naturally formed cavities in the rock. The cavities can be air, water, rock or soil infilled and can occur at shallow levels within the carbonate rock surface or at deeper levels below. Depending upon the geological sequence, as the cavities break down and become unstable they can cause overlying rock strata to settle and tilt and also collapse of non-cemented strata and superficial deposits as voids migrate upwards to the surface. Natural cavities can be present in a stable or potentially unstable...

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