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Piping and erosion phenomena are serious problems affecting the integrity of buffer materials, which are an element of engineered barrier systems in the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In this study, the outflow behaviour and the condition of buffer materials are investigated using a test pit drilled into host rock at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory to consider countermeasures to contain the outflow of the buffer material. The results are as follows: (1) Piping and erosion phenomena occur irrespective of the injection flow rate. However, when the rate is small, the buffer material is considered to be self-repairing...

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