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The viability of any fort or garrison depends on the availability of a reliable water supply. The source of choice is an underlying aquifer, reached by a secure on-site well or borehole. Unfortunately, at coastal and maritime sites, seawater intrusion can cause problems. In the late eighteenth century a deep well was sunk to supply the garrison at Sheerness, Kent, which successfully exploited sands beneath the London Clay. At Landguard Fort in Suffolk, a shallow gallery was designed to skim freshwater overlying saline water within loose sand and shingle. In the mid-nineteenth century, a network of forts was built...

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