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The Permian timescale has developed over about two centuries of research to the current chronostratigraphic scale advocated by the Subcommission on Permian Stratigraphy of three series and nine stages: Cisuralian (lower Permian) – Asselian, Sakmarian, Artinskian, Kungurian; Guadalupian (middle Permian) – Roadian, Wordian, Capitanian; and Lopingian (upper Permian) – Wuchiapingian and Changhsingian. The boundaries of the Permian System are defined by global stratotype sections and points (GSSPs) and the numerical ages of those boundaries appear to be determined with a precision better than 1‰. Nevertheless, much work remains to be done to refine the Permian timescale. Precise numerical age...

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