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Understanding the magmatic processes that drive unrest at silicic calderas remains a major goal in Volcanology. Rabaul in Papua New Guinea is an exceptional location because after two decades of unrest and a peak in seismicity and deformation in 1983–85, eruptive activity began in 1994 and is still ongoing. A particularly large sub-Plinian eruption occurred from Tavurvur in October 2006. Whole-rock compositions are andesitic and reflect mixing/mingling between basaltic and dacitic magmas from the same system. The magmas that fed the 2006 eruption were stored at about 930°C, with 1–3 wt% H2O, 25–520 ppm CO2,...

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