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The Late Cretaceous Gwillim Creek shear zone (GCSZ) exposed in the core of the Valhalla complex, and located in the hinterland of the southern Canadian Rocky Mountain thrust belt, is a 5–7 km thick, easterly verging, ductile thrust zone. It was active after c. 90 Ma and during anatexis (800°C and 800 MPa), rose eastward in the direction of transport, and its base was refrigerated from below at c. 60 Ma by thrust translation onto a cold footwall. Extensional shear zones are younger than the GCSZ, and there is no evidence of channel flow or ductile extrusion. Instead, a...

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