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The northern front of the Cenozoic Tien Shan mountains in Kazakhstan comprises east- to NE-trending thrust-related basement uplifts. Some of these are open, asymmetric anticlines, whereas others are fault-bounded blocks. Where emergent and exposed, the bounding faults dip steeply at 45–70°. Large-wavelength open folds in the Cenozoic cover also overlie basement structures. The Palaeozoic basement of volcanic, (meta-) sedimentary and granitic rocks contains older structures such as folds, slaty cleavage, faults and dykes. Some Cenozoic faults truncate all earlier structures, just as some Cenozoic folds are independent of the attitudes of underlying stratified basement rocks. The strongest control on...

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