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We present a new plate tectonic model for the breakup and dispersal of East and West Gondwana and subsequent formation of the Indian Ocean, focussed on the early evolution of the Eastern Margin of Africa. We start from a tight reconstruction of all the Precambrian pieces. Using primarily ocean-floor fracture zone data, the development of the ocean between India and Antarctica is resolved into four distinct spreading regimes and that between Antarctica and Africa into seven distinct regimes. The movement of Madagascar against Africa is then investigated as part of the plate–circuit closure between Africa and India in the...

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