Supercontinent Cycles Through Earth History
The supercontinent-cycle hypothesis attributes planetary-scale episodic tectonic events to an intrinsic self-organizing mode of mantle convection, governed by the buoyancy of continental lithosphere that resists subduction during the closure of old ocean basins, and the consequent reorganization of mantle convection cells leading to the opening of new ocean basins. Characteristic timescales of the cycle are typically 500 to 700 million years. Proposed spatial patterns of cyclicity range from hemispheric (introversion) to antipodal (extroversion), to precisely between those end members (orthoversion). Advances in our understanding can arise from theoretical or numerical modelling, primary data acquisition relevant to continental reconstructions, and spatiotemporal correlations between plate kinematics, geodynamic events and palaeoenvironmental history. The palaeogeographic record of supercontinental tectonics on Earth is still under development. The contributions in this Special Publication provide snapshots in time of these investigations and indicate that Earth’s palaeogeographic record incorporates elements of all three end-member spatial patterns.
Palaeomagnetism, geochronology and geochemistry of the Palaeoproterozoic Rabbit Creek and Powder River dyke swarms: implications for Wyoming in supercraton Superia
Published:January 01, 2016
Taylor M. Kilian, Wouter Bleeker, Kevin Chamberlain, David A. D. Evans, Brian Cousens, 2016. "Palaeomagnetism, geochronology and geochemistry of the Palaeoproterozoic Rabbit Creek and Powder River dyke swarms: implications for Wyoming in supercraton Superia", Supercontinent Cycles Through Earth History, Z. X. Li, D. A. D. Evans, J. B. Murphy
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It is likely that Archaean cratons of Laurentia had different palaeogeographic histories prior to their amalgamation. New palaeomagnetic, geochronological and geochemical evidence supports a reconstruction of the Wyoming craton adjacent to the southern margin of the Superior craton at 2.16 Ga, before rifting (c. 2.1–2.0 Ga) and eventual reamalgamation after the Hudsonian Orogeny (c. 1.8 Ga). U–Pb ages (TIMS on baddeleyite) from five dykes yield two groups of ages at c. 2164 and 2155 Ma. The younger group of ages defines the Rabbit Creek swarm at 2161–2152 Ma and precisely dates its palaeomagnetic pole. Two large and differentiated dykes (>100 m) in the Bighorn and Wind River uplifts are geographically related to the Rabbit Creek swarm but have slightly different orientations and yield slightly older ages at 2171–2157 Ma. These dykes may be parts of a single intrusion (the ‘Great Dyke of Wyoming’) that spans over 200 km between uplifts, possibly representing a different magmatic event. This older event does not have enough distinct intrusions to provide a correctly averaged palaeomagnetic pole, but correlates with magmatism in the Superior craton and has a palaeomagnetic remanence comparable to the Rabbit Creek dykes. With minor tilt corrections, the palaeomagnetic data from the Rabbit Creek swarm and Powder River–South Pass dykes support a reconstruction of the southeastern Wyoming craton against the southern Superior craton. This fit juxtaposes the Palaeoproterozoic Huronian and Snowy Pass Supergroups along two passive margins that experienced a prolonged period of mafic magmatism (>100 myr) and rift basin development. Although there are slight geochemical variations across the Rabbit Creek swarm, all dykes fit into two distinct groups that are independently dated and internally consistent.
Supporting figures and locality tables are available at www.geolsoc.org.uk/SUP18824