The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 2000 to 2010
The 1995 to present eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano on Montserrat is one of the most important and best-studied eruptions of an explosive andesitic volcano. This volume presents scientific findings from the period between 2000 and 2010; it follows on from Memoir 21, which focused on the early years of activity between 1995 and 1999. In addition to descriptions and analysis of the growth, collapse and explosions associated with lava domes, there are papers on the deformation of the volcano caused by the deep magma, the petrology and geochemistry of the lavas and associated gases. Of particular note are: an overview of the insights into the deep structure of the volcano that resulted from a major international seismic tomography experiment; and an analysis of the quantitative risk assessment process that has run now for most of the eruption, the longest such continuous assessment in the world.
Petrological and geochemical variation during the Soufrière Hills eruption, 1995 to 2010
Published:January 01, 2014
Thomas E. Christopher, Madeleine C. S. Humphreys, Jenni Barclay, Kimberly Genareau, Sarah M. H. De Angelis, Melissa Plail, Amy Donovan, 2014. "Petrological and geochemical variation during the Soufrière Hills eruption, 1995 to 2010", The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 2000 to 2010, G. Wadge, R. E. A. Robertson, B. Voight
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The andesite lava erupted at the Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV) is crystal-rich with 33–63% phenocrysts of plagioclase (65%), amphibole (28%), orthopyroxene (7%), and minor Fe–Ti oxide and clinopyroxene microphenocrysts. The andesite hosts mafic enclaves that have similar mineral phases to the andesite. The enclaves are generally crystal-poor but can have up to 27% of inherited phenocrysts from the andesite, the majority of which are plagioclase. The eruption is defined by discrete periods of extrusion called phases, separated by pauses. The enclaves exhibit bulk geochemical trends that are consistent with fractionation. We infer that the intruded mafic liquids of Phases I and II interacted and assimilated plutonic residue remaining from the multiple prior mafic intrusions, while the basaltic liquids from Phases III and V assimilated relatively little material. We also infer a change in the basaltic composition coming from depth. The bulk Fe contents of both magma types are coupled and they both show a systematic interphase variation in Fe content. We interpret the coupled Fe variation to be due to contamination of the andesite from the intruding basalt via diffusion and advection processes, resulting in the erupted andesite products bearing the geochemical imprint of the syn-eruptive enclaves.