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Recent advances in Global Positioning System (GPS), tilt and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) have greatly increased the availability of volcano deformation data. These measurements, combined with appropriate source models, can be used to estimate magma chamber depth, and to provide information on chamber shape and volume change. However, kinematic models cannot constrain magma chamber volume, and provide no predictive capability.

Volcanic eruptions are commonly preceded by periods of inflation. Under appropriate conditions, eruptions are ‘inflation predictable’; that is, subsequent eruptions occur when inflation recovers the deflation during the preceding event. Notable successes in forecasting eruptions have come largely...

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