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A fundamental question in the formation of orogenic andesites is whether their high melt SiO2 reflects the recycling of silicic melts from the subducted slab or the processing of basaltic mantle melts in the overlying crust. The latter model is widely favoured, because most arc magmas lack the ‘garnet’ signature of partial slab melts. Here we present new trace element data from Holocene high-Mg# >64–72 calc-alkaline basalts to andesites (50–62 wt% SiO2) from the central Mexican Volcanic Belt that crystallize high-Ni olivines with the high 3He/4He=7–8 of the upper mantle. These magmas have...

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