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The surface expressions of most Holocene rift-zone volcanic systems in Iceland are 40–150 km long a nd 5–20 km wide swarms of tension fractures, normal faults and basalt volcanoes each of which extends from a central volcano (a composite volcano or a caldera). Below the Holocene surface, the swarms are mainly composed of subvertical dykes and normal faults except within the central volcanoes where the main tectonic elements are inclined sheets. The inclined sheets are mostly 0.5 m thick, whereas the regional dykes are commonly 3–6 m thick and occasionallyas thick as 50–60 m. The two principal ways by...

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