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Vulcanian eruptions are frequent, small-scale, short-lived explosive volcanic eruptions, which are thought to be produced by impulsive sources. The experiments presented here, produced by injections of mixtures of water, alcohol or salt and solid particles into fresh water, created a wide variety of turbulent flows from steady and impulsive sources. We focus on the experimental flows analogous to Vulcanian events – unsteady, finite-volume releases of buoyancy (thermals) and momentum (puffs), and short releases driven by both momentum and buoyancy. Dimensional analysis, based on two controlling source parameters, total injected momentum (M) and total injected buoyancy (B...

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